A ‘Hag Stone’ also known as a Holey or Adder Stone, is simply a stone with a hole in it. The holes in Hag Stones are naturally occurring either as a result from the boring of a bivalve mollusk called a ‘piddock,’ whose shells look like angel wings or from coarse sand and/or smaller stones repeatedly grinding into a stone’s surface. Any stone that has a hole through it can be a Hag Stone.
But why the name, “Hag Stone?” Thank Old Europe for that, for in their folk magic lore, Hag or Adder Stones were viewed as protective amulets, charms and talismans that common folk used to guard against witches, evil spirits and dark energy. It was believed that if one looked through the hole, other worlds and invisible spirits would be revealed, or a witch’s evil powers and magic would be rendered useless if she peered through.
Hag Stones were worn around the neck or hung in windows, doorways, on barn walls or on boats to ward off curses, the dead, nightmares, theft and sickness. People even put them in bedrooms to prevent hags from sneaking in and taking their breath away as they slept.
Similar to American Indian dream catchers or the Middle Eastern ‘evil eye,’ hag stones are still being used by people today to avert negative intention and protect one from dark energies. Some associate Hag Stones with both the earth and water and feel they have strong goddess connections.
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Piddock info: https://the-hazel-tree.com/2013/08/21/piddocks-anything-but-boring/
Adder/Hag Stones https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adder_stone